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Animal Liberation代写 Australian moral philosopher

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  • My presentation is about a famous Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer. He is well known as an animal protection movement advocates in the world. In 1973, Peter Singer published the book 'Animal Liberation', which became a word deeply rooted in people's hearts and opened the prelude to the animal protection movement. Today I'd like to share Peter's another famous article 'The Singer Solution to World Poverty'.
    In his article, the author tells two stories. Both of them have profound meanings. The first story is a Brazilian film. In this film, the heroine Dora is a retired schoolteacher. She sells a homeless 9-year-old boy in order to earn 1000 dollars to buy a new TV. Actually, she knows the boy will be adopted and then killed, selling his organ for transplant. But she still calls him.
    The second story is about a nearly retired man, Bob. He has invested most of his savings to buy a valuable car, a Bugatti. One day, he parked his car near a railway and went for a walk. At this time, he found a runway train is coming. Looking far down the rail, he saw a small child very likely to be killed by the runway train. Here, he faced two choices. The first one is to throw a switch that will divert the train's moving direction where his car was parked, but his car will be destroyed by the train. The second choice is to let the train run, but at the expense of the life of the child. In the end, he chose the second one. The child was killed.
    By using a large number of instances, Peter Singer wants to express such a viewpoint as follows. He insists that all the spending on luxury rather than necessities should be given up. However, what the money should be used to do? It is very clear that the money should be used in preference on saving those children living in poverty. Hundreds of years ago, due to lack of social productivity, a large chunk of people can't get enough food. According to statistics, the average lifetime is under 40 before 19 Century. Along with the progress of the society and the improvement of productivity, poverty problem has been solved in most regions of the world. Only a few areas like Africa and parts of Asia are still suffering from lack of productivity or leftover problem of wars. People from these regions need our help. When we are sitting in a bright and quiet classroom, some of them are starving and expecting a peaceful living environment.
    We can't stingy. We must make some sacrifice and give up spending money on luxury. Instead, do some donations, or spend some time in the nursing home or orphanage. Others argue that most people do not have the habit of giving money away. But I firmly believe that this does not mean it is right. At present, from the angle of human nature, evolutionary psychologist analyses suggest people are less likely to be willing to make sacrifices to strangers. But in moral theory, if one can deeply understanding the significance between saving a child's life and eating at a fancy restaurant, he would make the right choice instinctively. What we saved, maybe it is ourselves the next time.
    When it comes to the rhetorical techniques, I think the writer uses metaphor and symbolism. Dora and Bob symbolize wealthy people. The new TV set and car represent not necessary stuffs-luxury. In the view of the writer, Dora and Bob represent not only themselves, but also many people in the real world. The writer takes Americans for example. American spend one third of their family income on unnecessary stuffs, like Dora's new television and Bob's luxury car. This is a completely waste of money and social resource. Instead, they can use the money to help the needy people, like ill children.
    Dora and Bob just as an example. In the real world, there are more owners of priceless vintage cars-Carol, Dave, Fred and so on. They are all in exactly the same situation as Bob. They enjoy their own wealth and comfortableness, at the expense of a child's life. In fact, excluding life, there are so many other things we can do. Only a small amount of money can save a homeless or sick child. We know there are so many needy children in the world, so we will always be the person who can save their lives. Suppose we save 1 dollar per day, then we will save 365 dollar every year, then how many children the money can save? Suppose owning 1 dollar can not improve too much of your life and the 1 dollar also can not reduce the quality of your life, but it means more for the needy ones.
    Hypothetical example, after all, is an example. In our daily life, we often spend lots of money on something worthless. Many friends of mine drink. We get together every weekend and sharing our experience during the happy hour. I am wondering if Uncle Singer sits in front of me. What would he say. Maybe he will encourage us drink water instead of costly wine. Meanwhile, we could choose organizing activities in outdoor. With beautiful sunshine and a light breeze, you would lose yourself!Why not put down your iphone, PSP or ipad? Step forward, take out your unnecessary spending to save the children of those living in poverty with Uncle Peter!
    Statistics are often convincing. According to the American Conference Board, an American family with an income of 50000 dollars spends around 30000 on necessities every year. It means three-fifths money they are spending on luxuries, not necessities. If the consuming habit is not changed, the problem of world poverty is hard to overcome.